New Resources from APHA
From The American Journal of Public Health and The Nation’s Health:
Neighborhood Social Inequalities in Road Traffic Injuries: The Influence of Traffic Volume and Road Design. Patrick Morency, Lise Gauvin, Céline Plante, Michel Fournier, Catherine Morency. American Journal of Public Health: 2012. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300528. See an article on the study in the LA Times.
Mapping Cumulative Environmental Effects, Social Vulnerability, and Health in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Ganlin Huang, Jonathan London. American Journal of Public Health: May 2012, Vol. 102, No. 5: 830–832.
Evaluating the Safety Effects of Bicycle Lanes in New York City. American Journal of Public Health. Li Chen, Cynthia Chen, Raghavan Srinivasan, Claire E. McKnight, Reid Ewing, and Matthew Roe. American Journal of Public Health: 2012. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300319.
Addressing the Implementation Gap in Global Road Safety: Exploring Features of an Effective Response and Introducing a 10-Country Program. Adnan A. Hyder, Katharine A. Allen, Gayle Di Pietro, Claudia A. Adriazola, Rochelle Sobel, Kelly Larson, Margie Peden. Published online ahead of print April 19. American Journal of Public Health: 2012.
The Lived Experience of Race and Its Health Consequences. Brian D. Smedley. American Journal of Public Health: May 2012, Vol. 102, No. 5: 933–935.
Methods for the Scientific Study of Discrimination and Health: An Ecosocial Approach. Nancy Krieger. American Journal of Public Health: May 2012, Vol. 102, No. 5, pp. 936-944. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300544.
The Nation's Health May/June 2012 vol. 42: Fatal alcohol-related car crashes are on the rise among young women drivers, a new study finds.
From Public Health Newswire (subscribe via email):
CDC report calls attention to burden of childhood injuries in US: The injury death rate among children in the U.S. dropped nearly 30 percent over the past 10 years. Despite the positive trend, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vital Signs report shows injuries remain the leading cause of death for youth. The most common cause of death from injuries is motor vehicle crashes.
Study: Poor urban areas have higher rates of traffic injuries (also see first AJPH study listed above): Researchers studied nearly 20,000 victims injured over five years at 17,498 intersections in Montreal. They also looked at the characteristics of each of the intersections and their neighborhoods, such as traffic estimates, population density and household income. They found that traffic volume at intersections increased significantly with poverty.
A public health approach to preventing injuries and violence: Q&A with Linda Degutis: Injury and violence prevention is a real and growing public health problem and one of the priorities included in the National Prevention Strategy, a major focus of this year’s National Public Health Week. Linda Degutis, DrPH, MSN, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and a former APHA president, reflects on the significant advances that have been made in the field of injury and violence prevention and her vision for meeting some of the challenges that lie ahead.
10 most polluted cities: The U.S. has significantly reduced its air pollution, but there’s still a lot of work to be done. These 10 cities had the highest levels of year-round particle pollution, according to a new American Lung Association report, which ranks the metropolitan areas based on ozone and particle pollution during 2008, 2009 and 2010.
Prenatal air pollution linked to obesity: Air pollution may play a role in obesity among as many as 25 percent of children living in U.S. inner-city neighborhoods, researchers said. Lead author Andrew G. Rundle, a professor of epidemiology at Columbia’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York, said pregnant women in New York exposed to higher concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are produced as byproducts of fuel burning, were more than twice as likely as others to have children who were obese by age 7.
Other New Resources:
Americans Driving Less, Especially Young Americans
A new report shows that young Americans have been driving less and traveling by foot, bike or transit more. The trend is led by people ages 16-34. While the recession may have impacted the number of miles driven in the nation, the trend toward reduced driving occurred even among young people who are employed and/or are doing well financially.
Infrastructure and Land Use in Low-Income Communities: Policy Impacts:
Two new policy briefs from Bridging the Gap Research shed light on the connections between transportation infrastructure and land use on low-income communities. Income Disparities in Street Features notes connections between walkability and safely navigating streets, and how low-income communities are less likely to encounter sidewalks and other safe infrastructure. For example, “streets with sidewalks on one or both sides of the street are significantly more common in high-income areas (89 percent) than in middle-income (59 percent) or low-income communities (49 percent).” Using Local Land Use Laws shows how local land use laws can support physical activity, and how this is related to income. It provides suggestions to local policymakers, such as how “local governments could modify their zoning code to include zones or districts that facilitate physical activity, such as mixed use, traditional neighborhood, transit-oriented development or pedestrian-oriented districts.”
County Health Rankings Released
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin’s Population Health Institute have released the third annual County Health Rankings. Nearly every county in the country is ranked on health outcomes (how healthy we are) and on health factors (how healthy we can be). Examples of specific measures used include: obesity, access to primary care physicians, air pollution levels, unemployment rates and number of children living in poverty. Learn more at www.countyhealthrankings.org.
FHWA Non-motorized Transportation Pilot Program: Report on Outcomes Available
The FHWA Non-motorized Transportation Pilot Program (NTPP) aims to demonstrate how improvements to walking and bicycling infrastructure can increase mode share for walking and bicycling. Four communities received more than $25 million to improve their walking and bicycling networks. The legislation for this program called for developing “statistical information on changes in motor vehicle, non-motorized transportation, and public transportation usage in communities participating in the program and assess how such changes decrease congestion and energy usage, increase the frequency of bicycling and walking, and promote better health and a cleaner environment.” The final report to Congress describing the program’s outcomes was provided in April 2012. According to the report, “the average person living in the NTPP communities walked six minutes…more per week in 2010 than in 2007. These additional minutes are helping people reach the CDC’s recommendation that people undertake moderate-intensity aerobic activity for at least 150 minutes per week.” Aside from improved health and safety, another goal of the program is improved community access; an example of this includes a loaned bicycle program in Minneapolis to support low-income residents.